GISP2

General Information

In late 1988, the Office of Polar Programs (OPP, formerly the Division of Polar Programs) of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) officially initiated the Greenland Ice Sheet Project Two (GISP2) project. It was developed as the first in a series of integrated studies, administered by OPP under its Arctic System Science (ARCSS) program, an initiative focusing on environmental change in the Arctic. On 1 July 1993, after five years of drilling, GISP2 penetrated through the ice sheet and 1.55 meters into bedrock, recovering an ice core to 3053.44 meters depth.

Data
  • "Original" GISP2 Depth Scale. GISP2 Ice Core 1997 Layer-Counter Timescale
  • Updated Greenland ice core time scales from Centre for Ice and Climate
    • GICC05 timescale (link downloads an .xlsx file). The GICC05 time scale is hosted at the Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen. For more information about the GICC05 timescale, read:
      • Seierstad and others (2014) Consistently dated records from the Greenland GRIP, GISP2 and NGRIP ice cores for the past 104 ka reveal regional millennial-scale δ18O gradients with possible Heinrich event imprint. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.10.032
      • Rasmussen and others (2014) A stratigraphic framework for abrupt climatic changes during the Last Glacial period based on three synchronized Greenland ice-core records: refining and extending the INTIMATE event stratigraphy. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.09.007
Publications
  • Albani S, Mahowald NM, Winckler G, Anderson RF, Bradtmiller LI, Delmonte B, Francois R, Goman M, Heavans NG, Hesse PP, Hovan SA, Kang SG, Kohfeld KE, Lu H, Maggi V, Mason JA, Mayewski PA, McGee D, Miao X, Otto-Bliesner BL, Perry AT, Pourmand A, Roberts HM, Rosenbloom N, Stevens T and Sun J (2015) Twelve thousand years of dust: the Holocene global dust cycle constrained by natural archives. Climate of the Past, 11, 869-903, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-11-869-2015.
  • Alley RB, Meese D, Shuman CA, Gow AJ, Taylor K, Ram M, Waddington ED, Mayewski PA (1993) Abrupt accumulation increase at the Younger Dryas termination in the GISP2 ice core, Nature 362: 527-529.
  • Alley RB, Finkel RC, Nishizumi K, Anandakrishnan S, Shuman CA and Mayewski PA (1995) Changes in continental and seasalt atmospheric loadings in central Greenland during the most recent deglaciatio: Model based estimates, Journal of Glaciology 41, 503-514.
  • Alley RB, Mayewski PA, Sowers T, Stuiver M, Taylor KC and Clark PU (1997) Holocene climatic instability: A large event 8000-8400 years ago, Geology 25 (6), 482-486.
  • Alley RB, Mayewski PA and Saltzman ES (1999) Increasing North Atlantic climate variability recorded in a central Greenland ice core, Polar Geography, Vol. 23, Issue 2, doi: 10.1080/10889379909377669
  • Anderson DG, Maasch KA, Sandweiss DH and Mayewski PA (2007) Climate and culture change: Exploring Holocene transitions, in Climate Change and Cultural Dynamics: A Global Perspective on Mid-Holocene Transitions, eds. Anderson, D.A., Maasch, K.A., and Sandweiss, D.H., Elsevier Press.
  • Bender M, Sowers T, Dickson ML, Orchardo J, Grootes P, Mayewski PA, Meese D (1994) Climate correlations between Greenland and Antarctica during the past 100,000 years, Nature 372, 663-666.
  • Bender ML, Burgess E, Alley RB, Barnett B, Clow GD (2010) On the nature of the dirty ice at the bottom of the GISP2 ice core. Earth Planetary Science Letters, 299, 466-473. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2010.09.033
  • Buckland PC, Amorosi T, Barlow LK, Dugmore AJ, Mayewski PA, McGovern TH, Ogilvie AEJ, Sadler JP and Skidmore P (1995) Bioarchaeological evidence and climatological evidence for the fate of Norse farmers in medieval Greenland, Antiquity 70, 267, 88-96.
  • Dawson A, Elliott L, Mayewski PA, Lockett P, Noone S, Hickey K, Holt T, Wadhams P, and Foster I (2003) Late Holocene North Atlantic climate “seesaws” and Greenland ice sheet (GISP2) Paleoclimates, Holocene 134 (3), 381-392.
  • Dawson AG, Hickey K, Mayewski PA, and Nesje A (2007) Greenland (GISP2) ice core historical indicators of rapid North Atlantic climate changes during the 14th century without NAO forcing, Holocene 17 (4) 427-434.
  • Domack EW and Mayewski PA (1999) A bi-polar signal in late Holocene paleoclimate: Comparison of the marine and ice core record, The Holocene 9, 2, 247-251.
  • Dugmore AJ, Borthwick DM, Church MJ, Dawson A, Edwards KJ, Keller C, Mayewski PA, McGovern TH, Mairs K-A, and Sveinbjarnardóttir G (2007) The role of climate in settlement and landscape change in the North Atlantic islands: an assessment of cumulative deviations in high-resolution proxy climate records, Human Ecology, vol 35, issue 2, 169-178
  • Firestone RB, West A, Kennett JP, Becker L, Bunch TE, Revay Zs, Schultz PH, Belgya T, Dickenson OJ, Erlandson JM, Goodyear AC, Harris RS, Howard GA, Kennett DJ, Kloosterman JB, Lechler P, Montgomery J, Porada R, Darrah T, Que Hee SS, Smith AR, Stich A, Topping W, Wittke JH, Wolbach WS, and Mayewski PA (2007) Evidence for an extraterrestrial impact, 12, 900 years ago that contributed to the megafaunal extinctions and the Younger Dryas cooling, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 104 (41), 16016-16021. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0706977104
  • Gao C, Robock A, Self S, Witter JB, Steffenson JP, Clausen HB, Siggaard-Andersen M, Johnsen S, Mayewski PA, and Ammann C (2006) The 1452 or 1453 A.D. Kuwae eruption signal derived from multiple ice core records: Greatest volcanic sulfate event of the past 700 years,J. Geophys. Res., 111, D12107, doi:10.1029/2005JD006710.
  • Gill RB, Mayewski PA, Nyberg J, Haug GH, and Peterson LC (2008) Drought and the Maya Collapse. Ancient Mesoamerica 18:283–302.
  • Hammer C, Mayewski PA, Peel D and Stuiver M, eds. (1997) "Greenland Summit Ice Cores", Special Journal of Geophysical Research 102, No. C12.
  • Johnsen SJ, Dahl‐Jensen D, Gundestrup N, Steffensen JP, Clausen HB, Miller H, Masson‐Delmotte V, Sveinbjörnsdottir AE, White, J (2001) Oxygen isotope and palaeotemperature records from six Greenland ice-core stations: Camp Century, Dye-3, GRIP, GISP2, Renland and NorthGRIP. J. Quat. Sci. 16, 299-307. https://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.622
  • Kreutz KJ, Mayewski PA, Meeker LD, Twickler MS, Whitlow SI, and Pittalwala II (1997) Bipolar changes in atmospheric circulation during the Little Ice Age. Science, v. 277, p. 1294-1296.
  • Kurbatov A, Mayewski PA, Steffensen JP, West A, Kennett DJ, Kennett JP, Bunch TE, Handley M, Introne DS, Que Hue SS, Mercer C, Sellers M, Shen F, Sneed SB, Weaver JC, Wittke JH, Culleton B, Stafford TW, Donovan J, Xie S, Razinkl J, Stich A and Wolbach WS (2010) Discovery of a nanodiamond rich layer in polar (Greenland) ice sheet, J. Glaciology 56, 749-759. https://doi.org/10.3189/002214310794457191
  • Ludlow LF, Stine AR, Leahy P, Murphy E, Mayewski PA, Taylor D, Killen J, Baillie M, Hennessy M and Kiely G (2013) Medieval Irish chronicles reveal persistent volcanic forcing of severe winter cold events, 431-1649 CE, Env. Res. Letts. 8, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/2/024035.
  • Mahowald N, Kloster S, Engelstaedter S, Moore JK, Mukhopadhyay S, McConnell J, Abani S, Doney S, Bhattacharya A, Curran M, Flanner M, Hoffman FM, Lawrence DM, Lindsay K, Mayewski PA, Neff J, Rothenberg D, Thomas E, Thornton P, and Zender C (2010) Observed 20th century desert dust changes: implications for climate and biogeochemistry, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10, 10875-10893. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-10875-2010
  • Mayewski PA (2008) Paleoclimate From Ice Cores – A Framework for Archaeological Interpretations, in “El Nino, Catastrophes, and Culture Change in Ancient America”, eds. D.H. Sandweis and J. Quilter, Dunbarton Oaks Pre-Columbian Symposium Volume, 15-32.
  • Mayewski PA, Buckland PC, Edwards KJ, Meeker LD, O'Brien SO and Buckland P (1996) Climate change events as seen in the Greenland ice core (GISP2): Implications for the Mesolithic of Scotland, The Early Prehistory of Scotland, Edinburgh University Press, Scotland, 74-83.
  • Mayewski PA, Holdsworth G, Spencer MJ, Whitlow S, Twickler MS, Morrison MC, Ferland KK and Meeker LD (1993) Ice core sulfate from three northern hemisphere sites: Source and temperature forcing implications, Atmosph. Environ. 27A (17/18): 2915-2919.
  • Mayewski PA, Maasch KA, Dixon D, Sneed SB, Oglesby R, Kurbatov AV, Korotkikh E, Potocki M, Grigholm B, Kreutz K, Taylor KC, Steig E, White J, Bertler NAN, Goodwin I, de Mello Monques M, Tholn IU, Simoés JC, Jana R, Kraus S and Fastook J (2012) West Antarctica’s sensitivity to natural and human-forced climate change over the Holocene, Journal of Quaternary Science 1 (28), DOI: 10.1002/jqs.2593.
  • Mayewski PA, Meeker LD, Morrison MC, Twickler MS, Whitlow S, Ferland KK, Meese DA, Legrand MR and Steffenson JP (1993) Greenland ice core "signal" characteristics: An expanded view of climate change, Jour. Geophys. Res. 98 (D7): 12,839-12,847.
  • Mayewski PA, Meeker LD, Twickler MS, Whitlow SI, Yang Q, Kreutz K and Reusch D (1998) Major changes in atmospheric circulation deduced from a Greenland ice core and comparison with an Antarctic ice core, Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, Vol. 20, issue 4, 398-407
  • Mayewski PA, Meeker LD, Twickler MS, Whitlow SI, Yang Q, Lyons WB and Prentice M (1997) Major features and forcing of high latitude northern hemisphere atmospheric circulation over the last 110,000 years, Journal of Geophysical Research 102, C12, 26,345-26,366.
  • Mayewski PA, Meeker LD, Whitlow S, Twickler MS, Morrison MC, Alley RB, Bloomfield P and Taylor K (1993) The atmosphere during the Younger Dryas, Science 261: 195-197.
  • Mayewski PA, Meeker LD, Whitlow S, Twickler MS, Morrison MC, Grootes PM, Bond GC, Alley RB, Meese DA, Gow AJ, Taylor KC, Ram M and Wumkes M (1994) Changes in atmospheric circulation and ocean ice cover over the North Atlantic during the last 41,000 years, Science 263: 1747-1751.
  • Mayewski PA, Sneed SB, Birkel SD, Kurbatov AV and Maasch KA (2013) Holocene warming marked by longer summers and reduced storm frequency around Greenland, Journal of Quaternary Science, 267-8179. DOI: 10.1002/jqs.2684.
  • Mayewski PA, Spencer MJ, Twickler MS and Whitlow S (1990) A glaciochemical survey of the Summit region, Greenland, Annals of Glaciol. 14, 186-190.
  • Mayewski PA, Wumkes M, Klinck J, Twickler MS, Putscher JS, Taylor KC, Gow AJ, Waddington ED, Alley RB, Dibb JE, Grootes PM, Meese DA, Ram M, Whalen M and Wilson AT (1994) Record drilling depth struck in Greenland, EOS Transactions 75(10): 113-124.
  • McCormick M, Büntgen U, Cane M, Cook E, Harper JK, Huybers P, Litt T, Manning SW, Mayewski PA, More AM, Nicolussi K and Tegel W (2012) Climate change during and after the Roman Empire: Reconstructing the past from Scientific and Historical Evidence, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, XLIII:2, 169-220.
  • McCormick M, Dutton P and Mayewski PA (2007) Volcanoes and the climate forcing of Carolingian Europe, A.D. 750 to 950, Speculum 82, 865-895.
  • Meeker LD and Mayewski PA (2002) A 1400 year long record of atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic and Asia, The Holocene 12 (3), 257-266.
  • Meeker LD, Mayewski PA, Twickler MS, Whitlow SI and Meese DA (1997) A 110,000 year long history of change in continental biogenic source strength and related atmospheric circulation, Journal of Geophysical Research 102, C12, 26,489-26,504.
  • Meese DA, Alley RB, Gow AJ, Grootes P, Mayewski PA, Ram M, Taylor KC, Waddington ED and Zielinski G (1994) The accumulation record from the GISP2 core as an indicator of climate change throughout the Holocene, Science 266, 1680-1682.
  • Meese DA, Gow AJ, Alley RB, Zielinski GA, Grootes PM, Ram M, Taylor KC, Mayewski PA, and Bolzan JF (1997) The Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 depth-age scale: Methods and results, J. Geophys. Res., 102(C12), 26411–26423. https://doi.org/10.1029/97JC00269
  • O'Brien SR, Mayewski PA, Meeker LD, Meese DA, Twickler MS and Whitlow SI (1996) Complexity of Holocene climate as reconstructed from a Greenland ice core, Science 270, 1962-1964.
  • Rasmussen SO, Bigler M, Blockley SP, Blunier T, Buchardt SL, Clausen HB, Cvijanovic I, Dahl-Jensen D, Johnsen SJ, Fischer H, Gkinis V, Guillevic M, Hoek WZ, Lowe JJ, Pedro JB, Popp T, Seierstad IK, Steffensen JP, Svensson AM, Vallelonga P, Vinther BM, Walker MJC, Wheatley JJ, Winstrup M (2014) A stratigraphic framework for abrupt climatic changes during the Last Glacial period based on three synchronized Greenland ice-core records: refining and extending the INTIMATE event stratigraphy. Quaternary Science Reviews, 106, 14-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.09.007
  • Rohling E, Hayes A, Mayewski PA, and Kucera M (2009) Holocene climate variability in the eastern Mediterranean, and the End of the Bronze Age, in C. Bachhuber and R.B. Roberts, eds., Forces of Transformation: The End of the Bronze Age in the Mediterranean (Oxford, 2009).
  • Rohling E, Mayewski PA, Abu-Zeid RH, Casford JSL, and Hayes A (2002) Holocene atmosphere-ocean interactions: records from Greenland and the Aegean Sea, Climate Dynamics 18, 587- 593.
  • Rohling EJ, Mayewski PA and Challenor P (2003) On the timing and mechanism of millennial-scale climate variability during the last glacial cycle, Climate Dynamics, 20, 257- 267, doi: 10.1007/soo382-002-0266-4
  • Saltzman ES, Whung P-Y and Mayewski PA (1997) Methanesulfonate in the GISP2 ice core, Jour. Geophys. Res. 102, C12, 26,649-26,658.
  • Seierstad IK, Abbott PM, Bigler M, Blunier T, Bourne AJ, Brook E, Buchardt SL, Buizert C, Clausen HB, Cook E, Dahl-Jensen D, Davies SM, Guillevic M, Johnsen SJ, Pedersen DS, Popp TJ, Rasmussen SO, Severinghaus JP, Svensson A, Vinther BM (2014) Consistently dated records from the Greenland GRIP, GISP2 and NGRIP ice cores for the past 104 ka reveal regional millennial-scale δ18O gradients with possible Heinrich event imprint. Quaternary Science Reviews 106, 29-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.10.032
  • Smith HJ, Wahlen M, Mastoianni D, Taylor K and Mayewski PA (1997) The CO2 concentration of air trapped in GISP2 ice formed during periods of rapid climate change, Jour. Geophys. Res. 102, C12, 26,577-26,582.
  • Stager JC, Mayewski PA and Meeker LD (2002) Cooling cycles, Heinrich events, and the dessication of Lake Victoria, Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology 183, 169-178.
  • Stager JC, Mayewski PA, White J, Chase BM, Neumann F, Meadows ME, King C and Dixon DA (2012) Precipitation variability in the winter rainfall zone of South Africa during the last 1400 years linked to the austral westerlies, Climate of the Past 8, 877-1125.
  • Taylor KC, Alley RB, Doyle GA, Grootes PM, Mayewski PA, Lamorey GW, White JWC and Barlow LK (1993) The flickering switch of late Wisconsin climate change, Nature 361: 432-436.
  • Taylor KC, Mayewski PA, Alley RB, Brook EJ, Gow AJ, Grootes PM, Meese DA, Saltzman ES, Severinghaus JP, Twickler MS, White JWC, Whitlow SI and Zielinski GA (1997) A close look at the Holocene/Younger Dryas transition recorded at Summit, Greenland, Science 278, 825-827.
  • Taylor KC, Mayewski PA, Twickler MS and Whitlow SI (1996) Biomass burning recorded in the GISP2 ice core: a record from eastern Canada, The Holocene 6, 1, 1-6.
  • Weninger B, Clare L, Rohling E, Bar-Yosef O, Bohner U, Budja M, Bundschuh M, Feurdan A, Gebel H, Hilpert J, Joris O, Linstader J, Mayewski P, Muhlenbruch T, Reingruber A, Rollefson G, Schyle D, Thissen L, Todorova H, and Zielhofer C (2009) The impact of rapid climate change on prehistoric societies during the Holocene in the eastern Mediterranean, Documentia Praehistorica XXXVI, UDK 902(4-5)”631”. 551.583, 7-59.
  • Whitlow S, Mayewski PA and Dibb JE (1992) A comparison of major chemical species input timing and accumulation at South Pole and Summit Greenland, Atmosph. Environ. 26A(11): 2045-2054.
  • Whitlow SI, Mayewski PA, Holdsworth G, Twickler MS and Dibb J (1994) An ice core based record of biomass burning in North America, Tellus 46B, 234-242.
  • Yang Q, Mayewski PA, Whitlow SI and Twickler MS (1997) Major features of glaciochemistry over the last 110,000 years in the GISP2 ice core, Journal of Geophysical Research 102, 23,289 - 23,299.
  • Yang Q, Mayewski PA, Whitlow S, Twickler MS, Morrison MC, Talbot R, Dibb JE and Linder E (1995) A global perspective of nitrate flux in ice cores, Jour. Geophys. Research 100, 5113- 5121.
  • Yang Q, Mayewski PA, Zielinski GA, Twickler MS and Taylor KC (1996) Depletion of atmospheric nitrate and chloride as a consequence of the Toba volcanic eruption, Geophys. Res. Lett. 23 (18), 2513-2516.
  • Yiou P, Fuhrer K, Meeker LD, Jouzel J, Johnsen S and Mayewski PA (1997) Paleoclimate variability inferrred from the spectral analysis of Greenland and Antarctic ice core data, Jour. Geophys. Res. 102,C12, 26,411-26,454.
  • Zielinski GA, Dibb JE, Yang Q, Mayewski PA, Whitlow SI, Twickler MS and Germani MS (1997) An assessment of the record of the 1982 El Chichon eruption as preserved in Greenland snow, Journal of Geophysical Research.
  • Zielinski GA, Fiacco RJ, Mayewski PA, Meeker LD, Whitlow S, Twickler MS, Germani MS, Endo K and Yasui M (1994) Climatic impact of the AD 1783 Asama (Japan) eruption was minimal: Evidence from the GISP2 ice core, Geophysical Research Letters 21, 2365-2368.
  • Zielinski GA, Mayewski PA, Meeker LD, Gronvold K, Germani MS, Whitlow SI, Twickler MS and Taylor K (1997) Volcanic aerosol records and tephrochronolgy of the Summit, Greenland, ice cores, Geophys. Res. 102,C12, 26,625-26,640.
  • Zielinski GA, Mayewski PA, Meeker LD, Whitlow SI and Twickler MS (1996) A 110,000 year record of explosive volcanism from the GISP2 (Greenland) ice core, Quaternary Research 45, 109- 118.
  • Zielinski GA, Mayewski PA, Meeker LD, Whitlow SI and Twickler MS (1996) Potential atmospheric impact of the Toba mega-eruption ~71,000 years ago, Geophysical Research Letters 23, 8, 837-840.
  • Zielinski GA, Mayewski PA, Meeker LD, Whitlow SI, Twickler MS, Morrison MC, Meese D, Alley R and Gow AJ (1994) Record of volcanism since 7000 BC from the GISP2 Greenland ice core and implications for the volcano-climate system, Science 264: 948-952.