The bubbles visible in this piece from an Antarctic ice core sample contain carbon dioxide and other gases that were trapped in the ice when formed thousands of years ago

About Ice Cores

References and Links

Drilling Ice Cores

Bentley, C.R. and B.R. Koci. 2007. Drilling to the beds of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets: a review. Annals of Glaciology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 1-9, doi: 10.3189/172756407786857695.

Bentley, C.R., B.R. Koci, L.J.-M. Augustin, R.J. Bolsey, J.A. Green, J.D. Kyne, D.A. Lebar, W.P. Mason, A.J. Shturmakov, H.F. Engelhardt, W.D. Harrison, M.H. Hecht and V. Zagorodnov. 2009. Chapter 4: Ice Drilling and Coring, Drilling in Extreme Environments: Penetration and Sampling on Earth and other Planets (eds Y. Bar-Cohen and K. Zacny), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, doi:10.1002/9783527626625.ch4.

Hubbard, B. and N. Glasser. 2005. Glacier ice: Character, sampling and analysis. Field Techniques in Glaciology and Glacial Geomorphology (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd), pp. 31-64.

Langway, C.C. 2008. The History of Early Polar Ice Cores. U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Technical Report, ERDC/CRREL TR-08-1.

Steffensen, J.P. 2013. Drilling a deep ice core at the NEEM site in Greenland. PAGES news, vol 21, no. 1, March 2013.

Talalay, P.G. 2012. Drill Heads of the Deep Ice Electromechanical Drills. Technical Report PRC 12-03, Polar Research Center, Jilin University, China.

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